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Doppler Effect

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An interesting effect was predicted by Lord Rayleigh in his classic book on sound: if the source is moving toward the observer at twice the speed of sound, a musical piece emitted by that source would be heard in correct time and tune, but backwards. The Doppler effect with sound is only clearly heard with objects moving at high speed, as change in frequency of musical tone involves a speed of around 40 meters per second, and smaller changes in frequency can easily be confused by changes in the amplitude of the sounds from moving emitters. Neil A Downie has demonstrated how the Doppler effect can be made much more easily audible by using an ultrasonic (e. g. 40 kHz) emitter on the moving object. The observer then uses a heterodyne frequency converter, as used in many bat detectors, to listen to a band around 40 kHz. In this case, with the bat detector tuned to give frequency for the stationary emitter of 2000 Hz, the observer will perceive a frequency shift of a whole tone, 240 Hz, if the emitter travels at 2 meters per second.

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